Our research topic is the biology of bacterial chromosomes. We have three main projects which are heavily interconnected:



Synthetic secondary chromosomes in E. coli

To learn more about the biology of bacterial chromosome maintenance we establish a synthetic secondary chromosome in Escherichia coli as experimental system. Chromosome maintenance mechanisms usually consist of a DNA binding protein and the respective DNA sequence motif. The distribution of such DNA motifs on the chromosome often determines the function of the system. On a synthetic secondary chromosome the motif distribution can be according to any design. By construction and characterization of synthetic chromosome variants we want to understand more about the role of DNA motif distribution in chromosome biology. The template for our synthetic secondary chromosome is Vibrio cholerae. This bacterium carries a natural secondary chromosome. We have constructed a 10kb “mini-chromosome” based on the replication origin of the V. cholerae secondary chromosome. The mini-chromosome replicates in E. coli and presents the chassis for more synthetic secondary chromosomes to come. 


Zumkeller C, Schindler D and Waldminghaus T. 2018. Modular assembly of synthetic secondary chromosomes. Methods in Molecular Biology: ‘Bacterial Chromatin’, Methods Mol Biol. 1837:71-94. [link]

Schallopp N, Milbredt S, Sperlea T, Kemter FS, Bruhn M, Schindler D and Waldminghaus T. 2017. Establishing a system for testing replication inhibition of the Vibrio cholerae secondary chromosome in Escherichia coli. Antibiotics (Basel) 23;7(1). [link]

Messerschmidt SJ, Schindler D, Zumkeller CM, Kemter FS, Schallopp N and Waldminghaus T. 2016. Optimization and Characterization of the Synthetic Secondary Chromosome synVicII in Escherichia coli. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. [link]

Schindler D and Waldminghaus T. 2015 Synthetic chromosomes. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. [link]

 Messerschmidt SJ, Kemter FS, Schindler D, Waldminghaus T. 2015 Synthetic secondary chromosomes in Escherichia coli based on the replication origin of chromosome II in Vibrio cholerae. Biotechnology Journal. 10(2):302-14 [link]



DNA replication of the two Vibrio cholerae chromosomes

The genome of eukaryotic organisms is divided on multiple chromosomes while bacteria usually have only one chromosome. An interesting exception is Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the cholerae disease. This bacterium carries a secondary chromosome (about 1 Mbps) in addition to the primary chromosome (3 Mbps). For three reasons this two-chromosome system came into focus of scientists over the last years. First, targeting the unique replication of the secondary chromosome could open up possible routes to therapeutics development specific for Vibrio species. Second, Vibrio is used as template for synthetic secondary chromosomes in heterologous hosts. Third, the two chromosomes in V. cholerae present the simplest possible system to study general questions of multi-chromosome systems. For all these aspects a deep understanding of the V. cholerae chromosome biology is essential. We study the DNA replication of Vibrio cholerae chromosomes using a wide range of molecular biology and bioinformatics approaches.


Kemter FS, Messerschmidt SJ, Schallopp N, Sobetzko P, Lang E, Bunk B, Spröer C, Teschler JK, Yildiz FH, Overmann J and Waldminghaus T. 2018. Synchronous termination of replication of the two chromosomes is an evolutionary selected feature in Vibrionaceae. PLoS Genetics 14(3):e1007251. [link]

Xie G, Johnson SL, Davenport KW, Rajavel M, Waldminghaus T, Detter JC, Chain PS and Sozhamannan S. 2017. Exception to the rule: genomic characterization of naturally occurring unusual Vibrio cholerae strains with a single chromosome. International Journal of Genomics, Article ID 8724304. [link]

Stokke C., Waldminghaus T., Skarstad K. 2011. Replication patterns and organization of replication forks in Vibrio cholerae. Microbiology 157: 695 – 708. [link]



The role of SeqA in E. coli DNA replication and chromosome segregation

SeqA is a fascinating protein with the unique ability to bind highly specific to hemi-methylated GATC sites. Such hemi-methylation is characteristic for newly replicated DNA. While the old DNA strand is methylated the new strand will be un-methylated. This situation lasts until the Dam methyltransferase adds the methyl-group at the N6 position of the adenine. Binding of SeqA to hemi-methylated GATCs at the replication origin hinders immediate re-initiation which is critical to guarantee proper timing of replication rounds. In addition SeqA follows the newly replicated DNA behind the replication fork potentially in a treadmilling-like fashion, with a SeqA structure growing at the leading end and shrinking in the trailing end. The moving of SeqA behind the replication fork must be based on the combination of DNA-polymerase progression, re-methylation by Dam and SeqA binding and leaving the DNA. We want to uncover the details of this molecular treadmilling mechanism using a combination of molecular biology, simulation and bioinformatics.


Waldminghaus T., Weigel C., Skarstad K. 2012. Replication fork movement and methylation govern SeqA binding to the Escherichia coli chromosome. Nucleic Acids Research 40(12):5465-76. [link]

Waldminghaus T., Skarstad K. 2010. ChIP on Chip: surprising results are often artifacts. BMC Genomics 5;11(1):414. [link]

Waldminghaus T., Skarstad K. 2009. The Escherichia coli SeqA protein. Plasmid 61(3):141-50. [link]

SYNMIKRO Young Researchers Groups

Almost all scientific members of SYNMIKRO are actively involved in DFG’s Collaborative Research Centers (Sonderforschungsbereiche), Research Training Groups (Graduiertenkollegs), or other Cooperative Research projects. Alongside performing adventurous experiments, and reporting excellent science, SYNMIKRO substantially promotes potential Young Research Group Leaders by constantly keeping its doors open to welcome and support Young Researchers planning to set up an Independent Research Group.
Our Young Research Groups